Scala is an object-oriented system
Scala has considered as an object-oriented language as the value present in each function is an object. The types and behavior of objects are described by classes and functions. Classes are a pure alternative to multiple inheritances and can be extended with subclasses and flexible hash-based composition mechanisms. A Scala Certification will help you in understanding all the concepts.
Scala is a functional system
Scala is also a functional language, in the sense that every function is a value; Scala provides a simple syntax for defining anonymous functions, supports higher-order functions, allows function insertion, and supports currying; Scala's built-in support for instance classes and pattern matching means that many functional types can be written in Scala. Built-in support provides the algebraic functions used in many functional languages. Singleton objects are a convenient way to group functions that are not members of a class. Scala Course Online will help you in understanding the system.
Features of Scala
There are many reasons why the Scala language is so popular and in demand.
In Scala, every value is an object, which makes it a purely object-oriented programming language. In Scala, the behavior and types of objects are represented by classes and properties.
Scala is a functional programming language. It has many functions which act as a value. Each value of a function acts as an object. It supports higher-order functions, nested functions, anonymous functions, etc.
The process of checking and enforcing type constraints in Scala is done a compile-time; unlike other statically typed programming languages such as C++, C, etc., Scala does not expect unnecessary type information from the user. In most cases, it is not necessary for the user to specify the type.
Scala can be extended with new language constructs in the form of libraries. Scala is designed to work with the Java Runtime Environment (JRE).
Parallel and synchronous processing
Scala allows code to be written in a fixed format, which makes it easier to take advantage of parallelism (Synchronize) and concurrency.
Scala Language Concepts
Let's take a look at some of the key concepts of the Scala language.
Functional Programming in ScalaWhat is a function? Have you ever heard of Albert Einstein's famous equation E = MC?2;? In other words, by taking the mass M and multiplying it by a constant, we can define a function that calculates the energy.
More importantly, we have just defined a function that has no side effects. A commonly used expression in functional programming is, "When you define a function, it is important that it does only what it is supposed to do." In short, a function should not have any hidden internal behavior.
Discovering existing function concepts
Many modern API designs incorporate functional ideas without applying them to functional programming: in the case of Java, Google Collections and the Spring application framework make common functional concepts available to Java developers. Scala goes even further and incorporates them into the language.
Exploring functional concepts in Google Collections
The Google Collections API provides many options for standard Java collections. In particular, it provides excellent immutable and efficient data structures and functional ways to interact with collections, namely the function interface and the predicate interface. These interfaces are mainly used by the Iterables and Iterators classes.
Static typing and expression
The type system in Scale allows code to be expressed. Programmers often mistakenly believe that static typing leads to typed code. This myth exists because many languages are derived from C, in which types must be explicitly specified in several places. With advances in software theory and compilers, this statement is no longer true. Scala takes advantage of some of these advances to make code smaller and more concise.
Transparent JVM operation
One of Scala's strengths is its seamless integration with Java and the JVM. Scala offers extensive compatibility with Java, allowing Java classes to be assigned directly to Scala classes. This tight interoperability makes the transition from Java to Scala relatively easy, but be wary of some of Scala's extended features. Scala has several advanced features that are not available in Java. Therefore, steps were taken during the design process to ensure seamless compatibility with Java. In most cases, libraries written in Java can be imported into Scala in the same format.
Scala objects in Java
Although Java static objects are assigned to Scala objects, Scala objects are instances of a singleton class. The name of this class consists of the object name with a $ at the end. The static MODULE$ field of this class is reserved for a single instance. All methods and fields are accessible through the MODULE$ instance. Scala also provides static methods for referencing where possible; these are present in a companion class (i.e., a class with the same name as the object). Although static methods are not used in Scala, they are a useful syntax when called in a Java program.
Scala functions in Java
Scala encourages the use of functions as objects, or first-class functions. As of Java 1.6, this concept no longer exists in Java (or the JVM). Therefore, Scala introduces the concept of function functions. This is a set of 23 functions, representing functions from 0 to the arithmetic number 22. If the compiler determines that a method must be passed as a function object, it creates an anonymous subclass of the corresponding function. Because functions are not mapped in Java, porting high-level functions from Java to Scala is also difficult, but not impossible.
Advantages of the JVM
As mentioned earlier, the JVM has several advantages over Java. Bytecode allows libraries to be distributed across platforms themselves. In addition, the JVM is well tested in many environments and used in large enterprises. Much attention has also been paid to the performance of the Java platform. The HotSpot compiler can perform various code optimizations at runtime. In addition, users can upgrade their JVM and immediately see performance improvements without patching or recompiling.